@leocg Awesome, that works!
Had to set it in the extension Details:
Alright, since this is working after all, a new extension for Opera is not necessary anymore.
Maybe a more suited title for this thread could be now:
"How to run a working content filter extension in Opera (without slowing down)?"
For anyone who has the same question, the steps were:
1.) Get the "Block Site" app from the Chrome web store, not the Opera store.
2.) Enable access to search page results in the "Block Site" extension details.
Thank you for the help leocg!